Embedded systems are very small computers built around microcontrollers, microprocessors including on chip program memory, data memory and peripherals. They in general work without human interfaces like keyboard or displays. Arduino, born few years ago, has quickly become the symbol, the "platonic idea" of embedded systems. Car injection or ABS Electronic Control Units are embedded systems, but much more powerful, because they have external memories and high performance processors. They are classified as embedded because do not execute a series of commands of the user, but, according to a predefined set of programs, work standalone, without human intervention. This is similar to the difference between a domestic and a wild animal. The user interface (Jtag, Icsp or a simple serial) has the only purpose of programming and debugging. Embedded systems are "wild computers".
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